Alcohols Impact on Kidney Function PMC

These changes can be profound in chronic alcoholic patients, who may demonstrate clinical evidence of dehydration. Regular, heavy alcohol use can also be harmful to your kidneys over time. According to the National Kidney Foundation, regular heavy drinking can double the risk of chronic kidney disease.

alcohol and kidneys

As known, alcohol tolerance varies greatly from person to person, and some nations consume more alcohol than others. Although studies on individual differences in alcohol consumption and CKD are limited, existing studies have found that individual variation in an alcohol dehydrogenase gene may play a role [98], but more studies are needed to confirm these findings. 2The terms “alcoholic patient” and “alcoholism” as used in alcohol and kidneys this article are summary terms for the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as defined variously by the studies cited. Of the 48 gallons of filtrate processed through the nephrons of the kidneys each day, only about 1 to 1.5 quarts exit as urine. During this filtering process, substances are reabsorbed or secreted to varying degrees as the filtrate passes through the distinct segments of the nephron tubule.

Effects of Ethanol on the Kidneys

Normally the rate of blood flow, or perfusion, (i.e., hemodynamics) through the kidneys is tightly controlled, so that plasma can be filtered and substances the body needs can be reabsorbed under optimal circumstances (see sidebar). Established liver disease impairs this important balancing act, however, by either greatly augmenting or reducing the rates of plasma flow and filtration through the glomerulus. Investigators have not yet fully explained the mechanisms underlying this wide range of abnormalities, though, and have devoted little attention to alcohol’s effects on kidney hemodynamics in people who do not have liver disease. Drinking heavily can increase the risk of high blood pressure and Type 2 diabetes, for example. Both of those conditions are the most common causes of chronic kidney disease in the United States. Having more than three drinks in a day (or more than seven per week) for women, and more than four drinks in a day (or more than 14 per week) for men, is considered “heavy” drinking.

alcohol and kidneys

We analyzed and compared the advantages and disadvantages of alcohol consumption for patients with CKD and the contradictions in existing studies, and we hope to provide some information for clinical decision-making and policy formulation. “Beer drinkers’ hyponatremia” is a syndrome that appears to result from an intake of excessive fluid in the form of beer. Hilden and Svendsen (1975) observed hyponatremia in five patients who drank at least 5 liters of beer per day (L/d) without any other nourishment. A cell’s function depends not only on receiving a continuous supply of nutrients and eliminating metabolic waste products but also on the existence of stable physical and chemical conditions in the extracellular fluid1 bathing it.

Related Search Terms

Sex, age, primary diseases, initial GFR, individual differences, and dietary structure can all influence the results of a study. Many studies have confirmed that unhealthy diet and lifestyle can cause various diseases, and heavy alcohol consumption is one of the important factors [66]. As an influential factor of many chronic diseases, alcohol consumption has been increasingly studied in recent years. Many studies have shown that alcohol consumption is related to cardiovascular disease, urinary protein, and CKD [3,6,16,45,66–69]. This review focused on 21 clinical studies of the relationship between alcohol consumption and CKD, including 13 cohort studies and 8 cross-sectional studies. The characteristics of the study design and other details of these studies are presented in Table 1.

  • The association of the secondary exposures—frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking—with the change in the eGFR were also assessed.
  • Y.J.L. designed the study; Y.J.L., S.C., and S.R.K. analyzed the data; Y.J.L. drafted the paper; S.C.
  • For example, a person with a UTI that spreads to the kidneys can develop sepsis, a dangerous infection of the blood.